Medical and Surgical Nursing
Acute Glomerulonephritis (AGN) Nursing Intervention

Acute Glomerulonephritis (AGN) Nursing Intervention

A kidney is a reddish brown, bean-shaped organ with smooth surface. It is about 12 cm x 6 cm x 3 cm (length-width-thickness) in dimension in an adult. It is enclosed by a tough, fibrous capsule known as the tunic fibrosa. There are two kidneys in a normal human body. They are located on either...
Myasthenia Gravis Nursing Management

Myasthenia Gravis Nursing Management

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder affecting the voluntary muscles. Like other autoimmune conditions, the body attacks its own by mistake. What happens in myasthenia gravis is that the immune system hinders the neuromuscular impulses that are necessary for muscular function. Based on several researches, it occurs at any age, but it is common...
Meningitis: Types , Causes & Management

Meningitis: Types , Causes & Management

Meninges are delicate membranes surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. These membranes protect the brain by housing a fluid-filled space. In cases where the meninges are inflamed and infection took place either by viral, bacterial or fungal causes, meningitis takes place. Commonly, meningitis is bacterial or viral in nature and the infection started elsewhere...
Multiple Sclerosis Nursing Management

Multiple Sclerosis Nursing Management

Multiple Sclerosis is a condition of the central nervous system and is chronic in nature. This is described as the demyelination of the brain, spinal cord and optic nerve’s white matter and usually occurs as small patches. Pathophysiology and/or Etiology Demyelination is defined as damage on the myelin, the protein and lipid-rich substance that serves...
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a type of autoimmune disease where the body’s own immune system attacks the healthy tissues by mistake. Lupus means ‘wolflike’ describing the distinctive rash over the cheeks and bridge of the nose appearing in most patients. Pathophysiology: The exaggerated autoantibody production in SLE is caused by the abnormality of the...
Burns Nursing Intervention

Burns Nursing Intervention

Burns is a form of trauma or injury to body tissues, either localize in a certain body part or massive. It is caused by thermal, chemical, electrical, or radioactive substances. It is classified as partial-thickness or full thickness. Partial-thickness burns involve the epidermis and upper portion of the dermis. Full-thickness burns involve all layers of...
Guillain-Barré Syndrome: How Nurses Should Manage

Guillain-Barré Syndrome: How Nurses Should Manage

Guillain-Barré Syndrome is a neuromuscular disorder, also termed as polyradiculoneuritis, and acute condition that involves inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy that occurs on the peripheral sensory and motor nerves, most of the time on the nerve roots. Pathophysiology and/or Etiology Guillain-Barré Syndrome is considered to be an autoimmune disorder. There is no specific cause of the autoimmune...
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Nursing Management

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Nursing Management

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a condition wherein the prostate gets enlarged, causing it to compress the urethra. This will lead to the manifestation of urinary symptoms. By the age of 80, one out of four men suffers from BPH. Pathophysiology/Etiology Studies show that the aging process and androgens may contribute to the advancement of benign...
Addison’s Disease (Adrenocortical Insufficiency)

Addison’s Disease (Adrenocortical Insufficiency)

Did you know that the body part responsible for controlling mineral or salt content in the blood is the same body part responsible for promoting the normal cell metabolism and producing the sex hormones both in men and women? What’s more interesting about it is how small it is compared to the huge function it...
Hypovolemia Nursing Management

Hypovolemia Nursing Management

Hypovolemia, otherwise known as fluid volume deficit, is an emergency condition where the water and electrolytes are lost in equal proportion (ratio of serum electrolyte and water is the same). This differentiates hypovolemia to dehydration which refers to the loss of water alone with sodium levels increased. Fluid volume deficit may occur alone or in...
Hyperthyroidism Nursing Management

Hyperthyroidism Nursing Management

Hyperthyroidism is a metabolic imbalance that causes overproduction of thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland is this little butterfly-shaped organ behind the larynx that produces thyroid hormones; thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), responsible for certain metabolic processes such as energy metabolism, temperature regulation, and other sympathetic activities in the human body. It is the second most prevalent endocrine disorder, after...
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Intervention

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Intervention

Carbon Monoxide is a gas product of incomplete hydrocarbon combustion. It has the capacity to bind with the circulating blood haemoglobin, producing carboxyhemoglobin which reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Its affinity to hemoglobin is 200-300 times than that of the oxygen-hemoglobin.   Carbon Monoxide poisoning is a type of inhalation poisoning through over...
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