Congestive Heart failure is described as the inability of the heart to pump enough amount of blood needed by the body for venous return and for its metabolic requirements. It is caused by intravascular and interstitial volume overload and poor tissue perfusion.
It is not a disease itself but denotes for a group of manifestations caused by inadequate pump performance from either of the cardiac valves or the myocardium. Pump failure is due to hypoperfused tissues, followed by pulmonary and systemic venous congestion.
It could be classified into four categories: (a) left- sided heart failure, which occurs because of ineffective left ventricular contraction, (b) right- sided heart failure, which may came from ineffective right ventricular contraction and sometimes due also to profound backward flow, another is (c) systolic dysfunction, which is a result of ineffective left ventricular contractility during systole; by which affects pulmonary circulation and increases the pressure in the pulmonary venous system, and lastly, (d) diastolic dysfunction, which is due to decreased ability of left ventricle to relax and fill during diastole and also because of the decline in ejection fraction. Take note that right ventricular failure usually follows left ventricular failure.
Congestive Heart Failure Nursing Care Plan
Brunner, L. & Suddarth, D. (1986). The Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice. J.B. Lippincott Company.;Critical Care Nursing Made Incredibly Easy 3rd Edition. (2012). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.