Multiple sclerosis is one of the diseases in the nervous system that puzzles experts even until now. It is a disease concentrated on the loss of conduction of nerve impulses in the central nervous system due to the immune-related attack on the myelin sheath. The axons when demyelinated or peeled off with myelin, it can no longer accept the electrical signal being sent by the nerve sensors.
Until now, the cause is pointed out to be autoimmune or just simply self-destructing. Multiple sclerosis can run into a family when a complete assessment is done. Some instances can also be pointed out as a result of a severe viral infection or vitamin D deficiency.
Pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis
Initially, there will be series of central nervous system inflammation that can affect negatively on both function of myelin sheath and axons. The inflammation of the central nervous system is concentrated on the white matter of the brain. This inflammation creates plaque which can be detected on the MRI scan. T-cells have an important role during the inflammation of the central nervous system. It combats the foreign entity inside the body. However, in the case of multiple sclerosis, as it is believed to be an autoimmune disease, the T-cells could not recognize the cells that they destroy; they might also destroy the myelin sheath that is not a foreign entity.
The plaque is anatomically situated between the brain and the spinal cord. The presence of plaque can hinder the electrical signals supposed to be delivered to brain and then to the spinal cord again and to the rest of the body. The blood brain barrier is also compromised. Normally, it may block the bacteria to climb up to the brain. However, in multiple sclerosis, it could not screen out properly and substances that are harmful to the brain can also cross.
Multiple sclerosis can be diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid is also examined in order to rule out some infections involving the spine and the brain. The diagnosis of a neurologist can actually be completed after a series of attacks or episodes rather than by single manifestation. Clinical episode should be watched out so that proper supportive medications are given.
Multiple sclerosis can have episode of relapse and remission. The earlier the symptoms can be detected the higher the chances that people can cope with multiple sclerosis. Knowing the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis can help medical professionals on how to intervene properly when the situation arises.
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