Typhoid fever is termed as an acute illness accompanied by fever caused by a gram negative bacilli called as Salmonella typhi. It is transmitted via fecal- oral route through contaminated water supply or food. Clients who had harboured this infection may become asymptomatic for a long time and could be called as “carrier”. Those carriers can then be a cause for future outbreaks of typhoid fever especially if there is improper sanitation and handling of food and poor hygiene.
Incubation period from ingestion to presence of fever is between 2- 3 weeks or 3-60 days; this stage is simply asymptomatic until bacteremia occurs.
Clinical Manifestations of Typhoid Fever
a. Gradual Onset
- Headache, malaise, poor appetite
- Chills and fever
- Rose spots- skin eruptions seen on abdomen, chest, back (within 3-4 days)
- Splenomegaly in some cases
b. Second week
- Fever remains consistently high
- Abdominal distention
- Constipation and later on diarrhea
- Intestinal bleeding and perforation (after 2-3 weeks)
c. Gradual decline in fever and symptoms subsides, too.
Typhoid Fever Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram