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fundamental of nursing test

Test Instructions: This is a multiple-choice type of questions consisting of 35-items. Each question tests your knowledge on one of the basic subjects in nursing, i.e. Fundamentals of Nursing. They are objective type of questions which are based from the facts; it is very important to use your critical and reasoning skills. The rationales are included once you finished the set. If there are questions that have a similarity to other sources, the author doesn’t intend to do it; instead, she hopes to enhance your knowledge on the said area. The topics included are the following:

  • Principles of wound care
  • Burn injury
  • Nursing process
  • Health beliefs and practices
  • Developmental stages
  • Asepsis
  • Delegation, leadership and management skills

1. In performing a bacterial wound swab, why is it necessary to cover the wound with appropriate dressing?

a. It reduces the transmission of microorganisms.
b. Promotes patient’s comfort.
c. Facilitates wound healing, absorbs exudate, and reduces risk of bacterial colonization.
d. It decreases trauma to the tissue.

2. Which of the following types of burn injury is more frequent?

a. Thermal burns
b. Chemical burns
c. Electrical burns
d. Radiation related burns

3. What kind of technique used for assessing the extent of burn that gives reproducible accuracy especially age-related cases?

a. Wallace’s “rule of nines” tool
b. Lund and Browder chart
c. Fitzpatrick’s Scale
d. Both A and B

4. Which of the following classification of burn injury that involves the muscle, bone, tendon and interstitial tissue?

a. Full thickness burn
b. Superficial partial thickness burn
c. Superficial burn
d. Subdermal burn

5. Which of the following clearly describes a stage 3 pressure injury?

a. It includes a full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and muscle.
b. It includes a partial thickness loss of dermis and shallow open ulcers.
c. It includes a full thickness skin loss; subcutaneous fat may be visible.
d. It is present on areas of persistent, non-blanchable redness when compared with the surrounding skin.

6. Which of the following is considered as a major factor in determining pressure injuries to patients?

a. Redness
b. Abscess
c. Edema
d. Pain

7. Which of the following strategy is not essential in preventing pressure injuries?

a. Promote rubbing and massaging the bony prominences.
b. Monitor patient’s nutrition and hydration.
c. Maintain good skin hygiene.
d. Prevent shear and friction.

8. Which of the following types of leg ulcer which is often painless?

a. Venous Ulcer
b. Arterial leg ulcer
c. Diabetic leg ulcer
d. Both A and B

9. All of the following describes the importance of using critical thinking except:

a. Nurses do not involve themselves in making important decisions.
b. Nurses use knowledge in a various field of study and subjects.
c. Nurses deal with change in a very demanding and stressful environment.
d. Nurses should use it to solve client problems and make a reasonable solution.

10. Nurses use the nursing process systematically in order to plan and provide the appropriate nursing care. Which of the following step in the nursing process where a nurse will continue, modify, or terminate the client’s plan based on the outcomes gathered?

a. Diagnosing
b. Evaluating
c. Assessing
d. Implementing

11. There are various types of assessment use by a nurse which depends on the situation. Which of the following is performed during any physiologic or psychological crisis of the patient?

a. Time-Lapsed Reassessment
b. Initial Assessment
c. Problem-Focused Assessment
d. Emergency Assessment

12. Obtaining data is a very crucial part in planning patient’s care. Which of the following types of data is also referred as the overt data?

a. Subjective data
b. Constant data
c. Objective data
d. Inherent data

13. There are different types of nursing diagnosis that a nurse can choose from. Which of the following types is considered as a client problem which is present at the time of assessing the patient?

a. Actual diagnosis
b. Wellness diagnosis
c. Risk nursing diagnosis
d. Syndrome diagnosis

14. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs clearly depicts the human needs as it is ranked based on how essential it is for our survival. Which of the following is not a characteristic of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?

a. It is realistic, sees life clearly, and is subjective about his or her observations.
b. Has superior perception, is more decisive.
c. It is self-centered rather than problem centered.
d. It is highly effective, flexible, spontaneous, courageous, willing to make mistakes.

15. Aside from Maslow, Kalish also presented a hierarchy of needs. Which of the following needs he incorporated or added to the five levels of needs by Maslow?

a. Affection needs
b. Stimulation needs
c. Independence needs
d. Recognition needs

16. Which of the following describes a secondary level of prevention?

a. Family planning services
b. Referring a client to a support group
c. Hepatitis B Immunization
d. Denver Developmental Screening Test

17. Health behavior change is a cyclical process where a patient progress in a series number of steps. Which of the following correctly describes the contemplation stage?

a. It is the stage where the patient acknowledges that he has a problem and considers changing that behavior for the future.
b. It is the stage where the patient plans to make actions in the immediate future (e.g. within next two weeks)
c. It is the stage where the person actively participates in the course of program designed for him.
d. It is the stage where the person strives to prevent relapse by integrating actions into his life.

18. The definition of health is very complex and may consider a lot of factors. Which of the following models of health and wellness describes that a person is considered healthy as long as they can perform their roles in the society?

a. Adaptive Model
b. Role Consistency Model
c. Role Status Model
d. Role Performance model

19. Agent-host-environment model by Leavell and Clark is one of the theories which is widely use in determining illness rather than promoting wellness. It is based on the interaction of three factors: agent, host and environment. Which of the following deals with the agent factor?

a. Climate
b. Economic level
c. Lack of body nutrients
d. Family history

20. Sociologists use the term illness behavior to describe how an individual deals with his signs, symptoms, and medical regimen at the time of his illness or disease. Which of the following is not included in the four aspects of the sick role provided by Parsons?

a. Clients are held responsible for their condition
b. Clients are obliged to try to get well as quickly as possible
c. Clients are excused from certain social roles and tasks
d. Clients or their families are obliged to seek competent help

21. Growth is the physical change and increase in size. Development on the other hand is an increase in the function and skill progression. Which of the following correctly describe the principle about growth and development?

a. The pace of growth and development is even.
b. Certain stages of growth and development are more critical than the others.
c. Development becomes increasingly undifferentiated.
d. Development proceeds from simple to complex or from integrated acts to single acts.

22. One of the significant characteristics during the toddlerhood stage is the increase in psychosocial skills and motor development. Which of the following nursing implications is very important during this stage?

a. The nurse should assist in developing coping behaviors
b. The nurse should assist the parents to identify and meet the unmet needs
c. The nurse should provide opportunities for play and social activity
d. The nurse should balance between safety and risk-taking strategies to permit growth

23. Freud identified five stages of development. Which of the following correctly happens during the anal stage?

a. 6 years to puberty
b. 1 ½ to 3 years old
c. 1 to 3 years old
d. 4 to 6 years old

24. Erikson identified eight stages of development. He pointed out that during the early childhood, the central task should be autonomy versus shame and doubt. Which of the following is an indicator of negative resolution to this stage?

a. Compulsive self-restraint
b. Mistrust
c. Estrangement
d. Lack of self-confidence

25. Cognitive development deals on ways in which a person learn to think, reason out, and use language. The cognitive theory by Piaget pointed out three primary abilities which are present in each phase. Which of the following deals with the process where an individual encounters and reacts towards new situation and using the mechanisms that they already have?

a. Accommodation
b. Adaptation
c. Assimilation
d. Coping behavior

26. Which of the following maternal factors does not contribute to the higher risk of low birth weight babies?

a. Low stress levels, including physical or emotional abuse
b. Use of addictive drugs or alcohol during pregnancy
c. Complications during pregnancy, poor health status, exposure to infections
d. Poor nutrition during pregnancy

27. Reflexes are normal to newborn; they are unconscious and involuntary responses. Which of the following infant reflexes is also known as the fencing reflex?

a. Babinski reflex
b. Stepping reflex
c. Tonic neck reflex
d. Palmar reflex

28. Which of the following psychosocial development stages is considered as the crucial crisis according to Erikson?

a. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
b. Initiative versus guilt
c. Identity versus role confusion
d. Trust versus mistrust

29. Nurses use different types of therapeutic communication techniques in order to build an effective relationship towards their patients. Which of the following techniques illustrates acknowledging the patient?

a. “You trimmed your nails today and washed your hands.”
b. “Your book is here in the drawer. It is not stolen.”
c. “I’ll stay with you until your mother arrives.”
d. “Tell me about…”

30. Learning is represented by a change of behavior. Which of the following learning theories where a nurse is seen applying a humanistic theory?

a. The nurse will provide an enough time for his patient to solve problems through trial and error.
b. The nurse will acknowledge the patient for correct behavior.
c. The nurse will encourage active learning by being the facilitator and/or mentor
d. The nurse will assess a person’s developmental and individual readiness

31. Andragogy is defined as the art and science use in teaching adults. Which of the following concepts can be used as a guide for client teaching?

a. An adult’s previous experiences can be used as a resource for learning.
b. As people mature, they move from independence to dependence.
c. An adult’s readiness to learn is often not related to a developmental task or social role.
d. An adult is more oriented in learning when material is use sometime in the future.

32. Nurses as part of the health care team can contribute largely on the health literacy of patients. Which of the following client behaviors will a nurse suspects that a patient has a problem in terms of health literacy?

a. No presence of pattern of excuses for not reading the instruction materials.
b. The patient will read the instructions instead of family members.
c. Pattern of compliance
d. Patient will insist that they already understand the information given to them.

33. A leader is someone who can influence others to accomplish a specific goal. Which of the following leadership styles that has a minimal leader activity level?

a. Authoritarian Leadership Style
b. Democratic Leadership Style
c. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
d. A and B

34. Delegation is the transfer of responsibility and authority to a competent person. It is a tool that a nurse can use in order to improve productivity. Which of the following tasks that should not be delegated to unlicensed assistive personnel?

a. Taking vital signs
b. Evaluation of care effectiveness
c. Postmortem care
d. Suctioning of chronic tracheostomies

35. Which of the following interventions that a nurse should not perform in patients suffering from hypothermia?

a. Cover the client’s scalp with a cap or turban.
b. Apply warm blankets.
c. Provide a warm environment.
d. Keep limbs far from the body.

Answers and Rationale

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The writer is twenty-two years of age who passed the NLE on July 2011. She graduated as an Academic Distinction Awardee and being the Florence Nightingale Awardee. Currently pursuing to finish her degree in Masters of Arts in Nursing major in Nursing Service Administration (Thesis Program). As of now, she is a Professional Nurse and a Certified Intravenous Therapist. She believes that there is always something in everything that we do. A career-driven, goal-oriented, and a God-centered person.