Typhoid fever is termed as an acute illness accompanied by fever caused by a gram negative bacilli called as Salmonella typhi. It is transmitted via fecal- oral route through contaminated water supply or food. Clients who had harboured this infection may become asymptomatic for a long time and could be called as “carrier”. Those carriers can then be a cause for future outbreaks of typhoid fever especially if there is improper sanitation and handling of food and poor hygiene.

Incubation period from ingestion to presence of fever is between 2- 3 weeks or 3-60 days; this stage is simply asymptomatic until bacteremia occurs.

Clinical Manifestations of Typhoid Fever

a. Gradual Onset

  • Headache, malaise, poor appetite
  • Chills and fever
  • Rose spots- skin eruptions seen on abdomen, chest, back (within 3-4 days)
  • Splenomegaly in some cases

b. Second week

  • Fever remains consistently high
  • Abdominal distention
  • Constipation and later on diarrhea
  • Lethargy
  • Intestinal bleeding and perforation (after 2-3 weeks)

c. Gradual decline in fever and symptoms subsides, too.

Typhoid Fever Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram


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