Pathophysiology
Congestive Heart Failure Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Congestive Heart Failure Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Congestive heart failure (CHF) otherwise known as cardiac failure refers as the inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to meet needs of tissues for oxygenation and nutrition. This disease can affect the heart’s ability to respond to circulation demands of the body. CHF is a slowly developing condition where cardiac output is lower-than-normal....
Respiratory Failure Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Respiratory Failure Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

The respiratory system is responsible for ventilation and gas exchange in order to deliver oxygen into the bloodstream and collection of waste gases such as carbon dioxide. In works hand in hand especially with the cardiovascular system to achieve ventilation and perfusion. Ventilation Ventilation is the movement of air in and out of the lungs....
Hiatal Hernia Pathophysiology & Schematic Diagram

Hiatal Hernia Pathophysiology & Schematic Diagram

Hiatal hernia is an anatomical defect wherein there is a weakening of the muscle of the diaphragm, causing some parts of the esophagus and/or stomach to pass through. The abnormal protrusion of the digestive organs within the said thoracic muscle causes a lot of symptoms that causes discomfort. There are three main types of hiatal...
Hyperthyroidism Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Hyperthyroidism Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Hyperthyroidism is the second most prevalent endocrine disorder next to diabetes mellitus. According to Tierney, et. al. on 2005, it affects women eight times more frequently than men, with onset usually between the second and fourth decades. Thyroid hormones facilitate metabolism. Consequently, if there is an abnormally high level of thyroid hormones (both T3 and...
Hydrocephalus Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Hydrocephalus Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

What is Cerebrospinal Fluid? CSF is a colourless fluid that circulates around the surface of the brain and the spinal cord. CSF serves as a cushion for the brain and the spinal cord. It is also plays a role in immune and metabolic functions. The normal CSF is 150 ml in the ventricles and the...
Hypokalemia Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Hypokalemia Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Potassium Potassium is a major intracellular electrolyte. About 98% of potassium is found inside the cells of the body while the remaining 2% is located extracellular and maintains neuromuscular irritability. Potassium is crucial to heart function and plays a key role in skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, making it important for normal digestive and muscular...
Pathophysiology of Liver Cirrhosis & Schematic Diagram

Pathophysiology of Liver Cirrhosis & Schematic Diagram

Liver cirrhosis occurs when the regenerative capacity of the liver is overwhelmed by alcohol consumption, drug or chemical damage, long-term infection brought upon by infection or extra hepatic bile obstruction. Numerous infiltrating inflammatory cells stimulate fibrosis in response to such massive destruction. It will then result in an ever increasing scarring until sheets of fibrous...
Cholelithiasis (Gallstones) Pathophysiology & Schematic Diagram

Cholelithiasis (Gallstones) Pathophysiology & Schematic Diagram

Gallstones or Cholelithiasis is the most common disease of the biliary system affecting nearly 20 million people in the United States alone. Gall stones are solid, pebble like collections that accumulates in the gallbladder. Bile is composed of various constituents such as water, inorganic ions, bile salts, cholesterol, lecithin and conjugated bilirubin. Bile salts and...
Pancreatitis Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Pancreatitis Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

The pancreatic enzymes Pancreatitis is basically the autodigestion of the pancreas by the pancreatic enzymes caused by obstruction of pancreatic ducts (e.g. edema, tumor, inflammation, and gallstones) and other causes. But before anything else, let’s review the different types of pancreatic enzymes and their main role in our system. Our pancreas is located in our...
Dementia Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Dementia Pathophysiology and Schematic Diagram

Dementia is a mental disorder that involves multiple cognitive deficits, primarily memory impairment, and cognitive disturbances (APA, 2000). The main cause of dementia remains to be a mystery. But there are tests and researches proved the high levels of aluminium favors the onset of this disease. Aluminum is toxic to the nerve cells and a...
Alcoholic Cirrhosis Pathophysiology & Schematic Diagram

Alcoholic Cirrhosis Pathophysiology & Schematic Diagram

Cirrhosis is the general term used to pertain to the destruction in the normal structures of the liver lobules. It is defined with its four important features: destruction in liver parenchyma, separation of lobules by fibrous tissue, development of abnormal structured nodules, and abnormal vascular architecture. Furthermore, it is classified according to its causative agent...
Typhoid Fever Pathophysiology & Schematic Diagram

Typhoid Fever Pathophysiology & Schematic Diagram

Typhoid fever is termed as an acute illness accompanied by fever caused by a gram negative bacilli called as Salmonella typhi. It is transmitted via fecal- oral route through contaminated water supply or food. Clients who had harboured this infection may become asymptomatic for a long time and could be called as “carrier”. Those carriers...
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