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Drug Study:Insulin Injection(Humulin R)

 

 

Generic name:Insulin Injection[Regular](in´su-lin)
Brand name:Humulin R, Novolin R, Regular Insulin, Pork Regular Iletin II, Regular Purified Pork Insulin, Velosulin, Velosulin BR, Velosulin Human  
Classifications:hormone and synthetic substitute; antidiabetic agent; insulin
Pregnancy Category:B

 

 

 

Availability
100 units/mL

Actions  
Short-acting, clear, colorless solution of exogenous unmodified insulin extracted from beta cells in pork pancreas or synthesized by recombinant DNA technology (human). Enhances transmembrane passage of glucose across cell membranes of most body cells and by unknown mechanism may itself enter the cell to activate selected intermediary metabolic processes. Promotes conversion of glucose to glycogen.

Therapeutic effects
It lowers blood glucose levels by increasing peripheral glucose uptake, especially by skeletal muscle and fat tissue, and by inhibiting the liver from changing glycogen to glucose.

Uses   
Emergency treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis or coma, to initiate therapy in patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and in combination with intermediate-acting or long-acting insulin to provide better control of blood glucose concentrations in the diabetic patient. Used IV to stimulate growth hormone secretion (glucose counter regulatory hormone) to evaluate pituitary growth hormone reserve in patient with known or suspected growth hormone deficiency. Other uses include promotion of intracellular shift of potassium in treatment of hyperkalemia (IV) and induction of hypoglycemic shock as therapy in psychiatry.

Contraindications  
Hypersensitivity to insulin animal protein.

Cautious use  
Pregnancy (category B),lactation,renal impairment,hepatic impairment and older adults.Safety and efficacy in children <2 y are not established.

Route & dosage  

Diabetes Mellitus

adult:SC  5–10 U 15–30 min a.c. and h.s. (dose adjustments based on blood glucose determinations)

child:SC  2–4 U 15–30 min a.c. and h.s. (dose adjustments based on blood glucose determinations)

Ketoacidosis

adult:IV  2.4–7.2 U loading dose, followed by 2.4–7.2 U/h continuous infusion

child:IV  0.1 U/kg loading dose, followed by 0.1 U/h continuous infusion

 

Administration

  • Subcutaneous    
  • Use an insulin syringe.   
  • Give regular insulin 30 min before a meal.             
  • Avoid injection of cold insulin; it can lead to lipodystrophy, reduced rate of absorption, and local reactions.           
  • Commonly injection sites: Upper arms, thighs, abdomen (avoid area over urinary bladder and 2 in. [5 cm] around navel), buttocks, and upper back (if fat is loose enough to pick up). Rotate sites.

Intravenous      


PREPARE  direct: Give undiluted. continuous: Typically diluted in NS or 0.45% NaCl. 100 U added to 1000 mL yields 0.1 U/mL.

ADMINISTER  direct: Give 50 U or a fraction thereof over 1 min. continuous: Rate must be ordered by physician.

Incompatibilities  Solution / Additive:  Aminophylline, amobarbital, chlorothiazide, cytarabine, dobutamine, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, phenytoin, secobarbital, sodium bicarbonate, thiopental   Y-site:  Dobutamine.                    

  • Regular insulin may be adsorbed into the container or tubing when added to an IV infusion solution. Amount lost is variable and depends on concentration of insulin, infusion system, contact duration, and flow rate.
  • Monitor patient response closely.
  • Insulin is stable at room temperature up to 1 mo. Avoid exposure to direct sunlight or to temperature extremes (safe range is wide: 5°–38° C [40°–100° F]). Refrigerate but do not freeze stock supply. Insulin tolerates temperatures above 38° C with less harm than freezing.

Adverse effects
BodyWhole:Most adverse effects are related to hypoglycemia; ana-phylaxis (rare), hyperinsulinemia [Profuse sweating, hunger, headache, nausea, tremulousness, tremors, palpitation, tachycardia, weakness, fatigue, nystagmus, circumoral pallor; numb mouth, tongue, and other paresthesias; visual disturbances (diplopia, blurred vision, mydriasis), staring expression, confusion, personality changes, ataxia, incoherent speech, apprehension, irritability, inability to concentrate, personality changes, uncontrolled yawning, loss of consciousness, delirium, hypothermia, convulsions, Babinski reflex, coma. (Urine glucose tests will be negatives).
CNS:With overdose, psychic disturbances (i.e., aphasia, personality changes, maniacal behavior).
Metabolic:Posthypoglycemia or rebound hyperglycemia (Somogyi effect), lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy of injection sites; insulin resistance.
Skin:Localized allergic reactions at injection site; generalized urticaria or bullae, lymphadenopathy.

Diagnostic Test Interference Large doses of insulin may increase urinary excretion of VMA. Insulin can cause alterations in thyroid function tests and liver function test and may decrease serum potassium and serum calcium.

Nursing implications 

Assessment & Drug Effects

  • Note: Frequency of blood glucose monitoring is determined by the type of insulin regimen and health status of the patient.
  • Lab tests: Periodic postprandial blood glucose, and HbA1C. Test urine for ketones in new, unstable, and type 1 diabetes; if patient has lost weight, exercises vigorously, or has an illness; whenever blood glucose is substantially elevated.   
  • Notify physician promptly for presence of acetone with sugar in the urine; may indicate onset of ketoacidosis. Acetone without sugar in the urine usually signifies insufficient carbohydrate intake.     
  • Monitor for hypoglycemia at time of peak action of insulin. Onset of hypoglycemia (blood sugar: 50–40 mg/dL) may be rapid and sudden.     
  • Check BP, I&O ratio, and blood glucose and ketones every hour during treatment for ketoacidosis with IV insulin.     
  • Give patients with severe hypoglycemia glucagon, epinephrine, or IV glucose 10%–50%. As soon as patient is fully conscious, give oral carbohydrate (e.g., dilute corn syrup or orange juice with sugar, Gatorade, or Pedialyte) to prevent secondary hypoglycemia.

Patient & Family Education  

  • Learn correct injection technique.     
  • Inject insulin into the abdomen rather than a near muscle that will be heavily taxed, if engaged in active sports.     
  • Notify physician of local reactions at injection site; may develop 1–3 wk after therapy starts and last several hours to days, usually disappear with continued use.     
  • Do not change prescription lenses during early period of dosage regulation; vision stabilizes, usually 3–6 wk.     
  • Note: Hypoglycemia can result from excess insulin, insufficient food intake, vomiting, diarrhea, unaccustomed exercise, infection, illness, nervous or emotional tension, or overindulgence in alcohol.      
  • Respond promptly to beginning symptoms of hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia is an emergency situation. Take 4 oz (120 mL) of any fruit juice or regular carbonated beverage (1.5–3 oz [45–90 mL] for child) followed by a meal of longer-acting carbohydrate or protein food. Failure to show signs of recovery within 30 min indicates need for emergency treatment.     
  • Carry some form of fast-acting carbohydrate (e.g., lump sugar, Life-Savers or other candy) at all times to treat hypoglycemia.     
  • Check blood glucose regularly during menstrual period; loss of diabetes control (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia) is common; adjust insulin dosage accordingly, as prescribed by physician.     
  • Notify physician of S&S of diabetic ketoacidosis.     
  • Continue taking insulin during an illness, go to bed, and drink noncaloric liquids liberally (every hour if possible). Consult physician for insulin regulation if unable to eat prescribed diet.   
  • Avoid OTC medications unless approved by physician.    
  • Do not breast feed while taking this drug without consulting physician.
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