1. D.

Rationale: Including the root healer gives credibility and respect to the client’s cultural beliefs. Avoiding talking about the healer demonstrates either ignorance or disregard for the client’s cultural values. Negative comparison of root healing with Western medicine not only denigrate the client’s beliefs, but are likely to alienate him or her and cause them to end treatment.

  1. C.

Rationale: Cheese and yeast products contain tyramine which the client should avoid to prevent a negative interaction with Parnate, a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor. Sodium will not interact with Parnate and neither exercise nor sugar needs to be limited.

  1. B.

Rationale: The client’s sudden improvement and decrease in anxiety most likely indicates that the client is relieved because he has made the decision to kill himself and may now have the energy to complete the suicide. Symptoms of severe depression do not suddenly abate because most antidepressants work slowly and take 2 to 4 weeks to provide a maximum benefit. The client will improve slowly due to the medication. The sudden improvement in symptoms does not mean the client is nearing discharge and decreasing observation of the client compromises the client’s safety.

  1. C.

Rationale: Additional teaching is needed for the family member who states her son will only need to attend outpatient appointments when he starts to feel depressed again. Compliance with medication and outpatient follow-up are key in preventing relapse and rehospitalization. The statements expressing expectations of feeling better as medication takes effect, needing medicine and group therapy to stay well, and needing help with grocery shopping, cooking, and cleaning for a while indicate the families’ understanding of depression, medication, and follow-up care.

  1. C.

Rationale: Endogenous depression (depression coming from within the person) is biochemical in nature. The biologic theory of depression indicates a neurotransmitter imbalance involving serotonin, norepinephrine, and possibly dopamine. Reactive depression is caused by the occurrence of something happening outside the body, such as the death of a loved one or another significant loss. Stating that the client will improve with the right medication or that family members seem supportive does not address the client’s immediate concerns of not knowing the cause of the depression. Discussing possible reasons for the client’s depression is nontherapeutic because the depression is endogenous and biochemically based.

  1. C.

Rationale: The nurse should explain that ECT is a safe treatment and that the client is given an ultra– short acting anesthetic to induce sleep before ECT and a muscle relaxant to prevent musculoskeletal complications during the convulsion, which typically lasts 30 to 60 seconds to be therapeutic. Atropine is given before ECT to inhibit salivation and respiratory tract secretions and thereby minimize the risk of aspiration. Medication for pain is not necessary and is not given before or during the treatment. Some clients experience a headache after the treatment and may request and be given an analgesic such as acetaminophen (Tylenol). Telling the daughter that the physician will ensure that the client does not suffer needlessly would not provide accurate information about ECT. This statement also implies that the client will have pain during the treatment, which is untrue.

  1. B.

Rationale: Option A casts doubt on the client’s perception, which is likely to increase the client’s anxiety and make the client feel defensive. Options C & D further the client’s unrealistic perception of the situation. Option B focuses on the client and her feelings which is the most effective approach to help her realistically consider her situation and decrease the anxiety that led the client to use the defense mechanism of reaction formation.

  1. D.

Rationale: The client with depression is preoccupied, has decreased energy, and cannot make decisions, even simple ones. Therefore, the nurse presents the situation, “It’s time for a shower,” and assists the client with personal hygiene to preserve his dignity and self-esteem. Explaining the importance of good hygiene to the client is inappropriate because the client may know the benefits of hygiene but is too fatigued and preoccupied to pay attention to selfcare. Asking the client if he is ready for a shower is not helpful because the client with depression commonly cannot make even simple decisions. This action also reinforces the client’s feeling about not caring about showering. Waiting for the family to visit to help with the client’s hygiene is inappropriate and irresponsible on the part of the nurse. The nurse is responsible for making basic decisions for the client until the client can make decisions for himself.

  1. C.

Rationale: Telling the client that others may not want to hear about sex and inviting him to play a game of ping-pong with the nurse informs the client that even though his behavior is unacceptable, the nurse considers him worthy of help. The client’s thoughts and actions are out of control, and directing him to an activity with the nurse is an appropriate way of regaining control. The nurse is responsible for providing safety and security to this client and others on the unit. Continuing to walk down the hall while ignoring the conversation does nothing to meet the needs of this or other clients. Doing so also diminishes trust in the nurse. Speaking to the client later in private while saying nothing at the time allows the client to continue his provocative behavior instead of focusing his energy toward productive activity. Informing the client that if he continues to talk about sex, no one will want to be around him is not helpful because his behavior is a symptom of his illness and the statement diminishes his self-worth.

  1. D.

Rationale: The nurse suggests an activity such as walking around the unit to distract the client from the paranoid grandiose delusion that could result in loss of control. This action interrupts the client’s anxious state and helps to redirect energy and focus on an activity based in reality. The focus must be on the underlying need or feeling of the delusion and not on the content. Asking the client to describe the people who will come challenges the client and forces the client to cling to the delusion. Stating that the nurse and staff will protect the client conveys agreement with the client’s belief system, reinforcing the client’s delusion. Telling the client that he is not the prince of peace and repeating his name challenges the client and his present belief system. Doing so may lead to decreased trust in the nurse and an aggressive response, or it may force the client to defend his beliefs.

  1. B.

Rationale: The nurse needs to provide the client who cannot sit long enough to eat adequate amounts of “finger foods,” or food that can be held and eaten while moving. High-protein and high-carbohydrate foods, such as a cheeseburger or peanut butter sandwich, are best for the hyperactive client to help maintain body weight. A bacon, lettuce, and tomato sandwich would not provide the client with adequate protein and carbohydrates. Additionally, this type of sandwich is difficult to carry around and can be dropped easily. An ice cream cone, although high in calories, would not provide the client with adequate protein. Cut-up vegetables are a poor selection because, although they are high in vitamins, they are low in protein, which is necessary for building and repairing body cells and tissues, and low in carbohydrates, which are needed for energy.

  1. A.

Rationale: The client in the manic phase experiences insomnia, as evidenced by his sleeping only for about 4 hours a night for the past 5 days. The client experiencing an acute manic episode is not capable of judging the need for sleep. Therefore, the nurse should assess the amount of rest the client is receiving daily to prevent exhaustion. The development of vertigo, gastritis, or bradycardia typically does not result from acute mania.

  1. C.

Rationale: Bipolar disorder is a biochemical disorder caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain. Manic episodes seem to be related to excessive levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. Psychopharmacologic therapy aims to restore the balance of neurotransmitters. In the past, it was thought that bipolar disorder may have been caused by early psychodynamics or disturbed families, but the current view emphasizes the role of biology. Bipolar disorder could be genetic or inherited from someone in the family, but it is best for the client and family to understand the disease concept related to neurotransmitter imbalance. This understanding also helps them to refrain from placing blame on anyone. Siblings and close relatives have a higher incidence of bipolar disorder and mood disorders in general when compared with the general population.

  1. C.

Rationale: Depakene, an anticonvulsant agent, is used as a mood stabilizer in the client with bipolar disorder. Common side effects include drowsiness and gastrointestinal upset. The client needs to be cautioned not to drive or perform tasks requiring alertness and to take the medication with food or milk or eat frequent, small meals. Blood tests are required to evaluate the serum level (usually 50 to 100 μg/mL) and to check for possible hematologic effects. Depakene can cause changes in liver function and blood dyscrasias. The tablet must be swallowed whole and not chewed or crushed to prevent irritation of the mouth and throat. Alcohol as well as over-the counter drugs and sleep-inducing agents must be avoided to prevent over-sedation.

  1. B.

Rationale: The nurse’s most appropriate action is to give the wife information about a support group in her area. The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) has affiliates in every state and many locales. NAMI has separate groups for consumers and family members and offers a 12-week program for family members or caregivers called Family to Family. The program is psychoeducational in nature, and participants learn, share, and support each other. Family members need and want education and support. Suggesting that the wife see a physician is not necessary in this situation. She needs support and education. Recommending that she talk with her close friend may be helpful if she so chooses. However, this is not as helpful as attending a support group. Here the wife can learn, share, obtain support from, and provide support to others with similar situations. Having the wife share her feelings with her husband may or may not be appropriate or helpful to her or her husband. The husband may be unable to help his wife with adaptive coping, and therefore the client’s self-esteem could be diminished.

  1. A.

Rationale: Open-ended questions and silence are strategies used to encourage clients to discuss their problems. Sharing personal food preferences is not a client-centered intervention. The remaining options are not helpful to the client because they do not encourage the client to express feelings. The nurse should not offer opinions and should encourage the client to identify the reasons for the behavior.

  1. A, F.

Rationale: The stages of group development include the initial stage, the working stage, and the termination stage. During the initial stage, the group members become acquainted with one another, and some structuring of group norms, roles, and responsibilities takes place. During the initial stage, group interaction involves superficial conversation. During the working stage, the real work of the group is accomplished. During the termination stage, the group evaluates the experience and explores members’ feelings about the group and the impending separation.

  1. D.

Rationale: Cognitive behavioral therapy is used to help the client identify and examine dysfunctional thoughts and to identify and examine values and beliefs that maintain these thoughts. The remaining options, while therapeutic in certain situations, are not the focus of cognitive behavioral therapy.

  1. A.

Rationale: The first step in the 12-step program is to admit that a problem exists. Substituting other activities for gambling may be a strategy but it is not the first step. The remaining options are not realistic strategies for the initial step in a 12-step program.

  1. A.

Rationale: The nurse is required to maintain confidentiality regarding the client and the client’s care. Confidentiality is basic to the therapeutic relationship and is a client’s right. The most appropriate response to the neighbor is the statement of that responsibility in a direct, but polite manner. A blunt statement that does not acknowledge why the nurse cannot reveal client information may be taken as disrespectful and uncaring. The remaining options identify statements that do not maintain client confidentiality.

  1. B.

Rationale: Provision of a consistent daily routine and a low stimulating environment is important when a client is disoriented. Noise, including radio and television, may add to the confusion and disorientation. Moving the client next to the nurses’ station may become necessary but is not the initial action.

  1. D.

Rationale: A client with depression often is withdrawn while experiencing difficulty concentrating, loss of interest or pleasure, low energy, fatigue, and feelings of worthlessness and poor self-esteem. The plan of care needs to provide successful experiences in a stimulating yet structured environment. The remaining options are either too “restrictive” or offer little or no structure and stimulation.

  1. C.

Rationale: The client is at risk for injury to self and others and should be escorted out of the dayroom. Seclusion is premature in this situation. Telling the client that the behavior is inappropriate has already been attempted by the nurse. Denying privileges may increase the agitation that already exists in this client.

  1. A, C, D, F.

Rationale: Interventions for dealing with the client exhibiting manipulative behavior include setting clear, consistent, and enforceable limits on manipulative behaviors; being clear with the client regarding the consequences of exceeding the limits set; following through with the consequences in a nonpunitive manner; and assisting the client in identifying a means of setting limits on personal behaviors. Ensuring that the client knows that he or she is not in charge of the nursing unit is inappropriate; power struggles need to be avoided. Enforcing rules and informing the client that he or she will not be allowed to attend therapy groups is a violation of a client’s rights.

  1. B.

Rationale: Solitary activities that require a short attention span with mild physical exertion are the most appropriate activities for a client who is exhibiting aggressive behavior. Writing (journaling), walks with staff, and finger painting are activities that minimize stimuli and provide a constructive release for tension. The remaining options have a competitive element to them and should be avoided because they can stimulate aggression and increase psychomotor activity.

  1. A, C, D.

Rationale: Clients with bulimia nervosa initially may not appear to be physically or emotionally ill. They are often at or slightly below ideal body weight. On further inspection, a client exhibits dental decay and loss of tooth enamel if the client has been inducing vomiting. Electrolyte imbalances are present. Dry, scaly skin (rather than moist, oily skin) is present.

  1. B.

Rationale: Clients with anorexia nervosa frequently are preoccupied with rigorous exercise and push themselves beyond normal limits to work off caloric intake. The nurse must provide for appropriate exercise and place limits on rigorous activities. The correct option stops the harmful behavior yet provides the client with an activity to decrease anxiety that is not harmful. Weighing the client immediately reinforces the client’s preoccupation with weight. Allowing the client to complete the exercise program can be harmful to the client. Telling the client that she is not allowed to complete the exercise program will increase the client’s anxiety.

  1. B.

Rationale: A situational crisis arises from external rather than internal sources. External situations that could precipitate a crisis include loss or change of a job, the death of a loved one, abortion, change in financial status, divorce, addition of new family members, pregnancy, and severe illness. Options A, C, and D identify adventitious crises. An adventitious crisis refers to a crisis of disaster, is not a part of everyday life, and is unplanned and accidental. Adventitious crises may result from a natural disaster (e.g., floods, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes), a national disaster (e.g., war, riots, airplane crashes), or a crime of violence (e.g., rape, assault, murder in the workplace or school, bombings, or spousal or child abuse).

  1. C.

Rationale: The nurse’s initial task when assessing a client in crisis is to assess the individual or family and the problem. The more clearly the problem can be defined, the better the chance a solution can be found. The correct option would assist in determining data related to the precipitating event that led to the crisis. Options A and B assess situational supports. Option D assesses personal coping skills.

  1. B.

Rationale: The initial nursing action is to assess and treat the self-inflicted injuries. Injuries from lacerated wrists can lead to a life-threatening situation. Other interventions, such as options A, C, and D, may follow after the client has been treated medically.

References

  1. Giger, J.N. (2017). Transcultural Nursing: Assessment & Intervention. (7th ed.). Missouri: Elsevier.
  2. Potter, P.A., Perry, A.G., Stockert, P.A., & Hall, A.M. (2019). Essentials for Nursing Practice (9th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier.
  3. Townsend, M.C. & Morgan, K.I. (2017). Essentials of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: Concepts of Care in Evidence-Based Practice. (7th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.

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