Children nowadays with fever should not be taken for granted as this is also the manifestation of Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki disease is also called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome or infantile polyarteritis.
Kawasaki disease got its name from the place of origin which is in Japan. Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1967 first described this rare disease in Japan. In other countries such as the United States, it ranked second among the leading cause of cardiac ailment among children. Children 5 years below are the most victim of such disease.
Cause of Kawasaki disease
- Considered to be an autoimmune disease.
- Environmental facts
- Exposure to the previous infection
- Regardless of the location, Japanese children are more prone to develop this
Signs and Symptoms of Kawasaki disease
- Persistent fever between 102 °F up to 104 °F
- Classic sign is a persistent fever that may last for 5 days
- Fever does not improve even with antipyretic medications
- Red eyes without any discharges
- Cracked and red lips
- Red buccal mucosa
- Strawberry tongue, white spots with bumps can be seen also
- Palmar and plantar redness.
- Joint swelling
- Skin rashes that is evident in the middle part of the body
- Irritability and inability to sleep
- Nasal catarrh
- Abdominal pain
- Heart vessel inflammation
There is no known specific test for Kawasaki disease. The evaluation can be squared using the above signs and symptoms.
1. Chest x-rays are done in order to rule out any pulmonary infection or complications that can even reach the pulmonary system.
2. A complete blood count can reveal any blood deficiencies.
3. An echocardiogram and electrocardiogram can also check the valves and other parts of the heart that may signal an infection. It may also indicate myocarditis, pericarditis or any inflammation of the heart.
4. Urinalysis can also reveal protein or pus cells.
- Admission to the nearest hospital must be warranted.
- Intravenous fluids should be instituted in order to prevent further dehydration.
- The standard treatment involves the prevention of serious cardiac complications with the use of intravenous gamma globulin.
- Aspirin is used as a complementary dose with IV gamma globulin.
- Steroids are also ordered in order to prevent inflammation on joints as well as valves of the heart.
- Monitor the vital signs every hour.
- Note the persistence of fever and refer to the physician.
- Instruct the mother to do a tepid sponge bath.
- Encourage an increase of fluid intake if the patient is not vomiting.
- Provide comfortable clothes for the child.
- Alley the fears and hopes of the family.
- Observe proper hand washing before and after each nursing procedure in order to prevent further infection.